Site hosted by Angelfire.com: Build your free website today!

Principles of Management

Instructor: Navaid M. Khan



A program of
Institute of Business Management


FALL 2014


All students must carry to the class the course text book
MANAGEMENT
by
KATHRYN BARTOL, MARGARET TEIN, GRAHAM MATTHEWS & DAVID MARTIN

All those who do not have the text book in the class, their marks will be deducted




Some Basic Definitions
• Management is the process of attaining organizational goals by effectively and efficiently Planning, Organizing, Leading/Motivating and Controlling
the Organization’s Human, Physical, Financial, and Information Resources

• Efficiency is
• Getting work done with a minimum of effort, expense, or waste
• Doings things right—most output for least input

• Effectiveness is
• Accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives
• Doing the right things

Manager is:
Someone who participates in the management process by planning, organizing, leading, or controlling the organizations resources.

Entrepreneur is:
An individual who conceives an idea of what product or service to offer and launches and runs his business.

Organization is:
A group of two or more people who work together in a consciously structured setting to achieve group goals.

Customers are:
Individuals and organizations that buy the goods and services produced by an organization

Performance is:
The degree to which individuals and organizations achieve organizations goal with effectiveness and efficiency


Four Management Functions

Planning
• Determining organizational goals and a means for achieving them Organizing
• Deciding where decisions will be made
• Who will do what jobs and tasks
• Who will work for whom

Leading
Inspiring – Motivating

Controlling
• Monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective action when needed


KATZ'S 3 Levels of Management

• Top Managers
• Middle Managers
• First-Line Managers/ Supervisors

Top Managers

 Responsible for providing the overall direction of an organization
 Develop goals and strategies for entire organization
 Spend most of their time planning and leading
 Communicate with key stakeholders—stockholders, unions, governmental agencies, etc., company policies
 Use of multicultural and strategic action competencies to lead firm is crucial

Responsibilities of top Managers Middle Managers
 Responsible for setting objectives that are consistent with top management’s goals and translating them into specific goals and plans for first-line managers to implement
 Responsible for coordinating activities of first-line managers
 Establish target dates for products/services to be delivered
 Need to coordinate with others for resources
 Ability to develop others is important
 Rely on communication, teamwork, and planning and administration competencies to achieve goals

• First-line Managers
 Directly responsible for production of goods or services
 Employees who report to first-line managers do the organization’s work
 Spend little time with top managers in large organizations
 Technical expertise is important
 Rely on planning and administration, self-management, teamwork, and communication competencies to get work done


Mintzberg's Ten Managerial Roles
• Figurehead: All social, inspiration, legal and ceremonial obligations. In this light, the manager is seen as a symbol of status and authority.
• Leader: Duties are at the heart of the manager-subordinate relationship and include structuring and motivating subordinates, overseeing their progress, promoting and encouraging their development, and balancing effectiveness.
• Liaison: Describes the information and communication obligations of a manager. One must network and engage in information exchange to gain access to knowledge bases.
• Monitor: Duties include assessing internal operations, a department's success and the problems and opportunities which may arise. All the information gained in this capacity must be stored and maintained.
• Disseminator: Highlights factual or value based external views into the organization and to subordinates. This requires both filtering and delegation skills. • Spokesman: Serves in a PR capacity by informing and lobbying others to keep key stakeholders updated about the operations of the organization.
• Entrepreneur: Roles encourage managers to create improvement projects and work to delegate, empower and supervise teams in the development process.
• Disturbance handler: A generalist role that takes charge when an organization is unexpectedly upset or transformed and requires calming and support.
• Resource Allocator: Describes the responsibility of allocating and overseeing financial, material and personnel resources.
• Negotiator: Is a specific task which is integral for the spokesman, figurehead and resource allocator roles.


Managerial Skills

Management is a challenging job. It requires certain skills to accomplish such a challenge. Thus, essential skills which every manager needs for doing a better management are called as Managerial Skills.

According to Professor Katz, there are three managerial skills, viz.,
1. Conceptual Skills,
2. Human Relations Skills, and
3. Technical Skills.

According to Prof. Katz, all managers require above three managerial skills. However, the degree (amount) of these skills required varies (changes) fromlevels of management and from an organisation to the organisation.

The diagram I showed in class has the managerial skills which are required by managers working at different levels of management. The top-level managers require more conceptual skills and less technical skills. The lower-level managers require more technical skills and fewer conceptual skills. Human relations skills are required equally by all three levels of management.

1. Conceptual Skills
Conceptual skill is the ability to visualise (see) the organisation as a whole. It includes Analytical, Creative and Initiative skills. It helps the manager to identify the causes of the problems and not the symptoms. It helps him tosolve the problems for the benefit of the entire organisation. It helps the manager to fix goals for the whole organisation and to plan for every situation. According to Prof. Katz, conceptual skills are mostly required by the top-levelmanagement because they spend more time in planning, organising andproblem solving.

2. Human Relations Skills
Human relations skills are also called Interpersonal skills. It is an ability to work with people. It helps the managers to understand, communicate and work with others. It also helps the managers to lead, motivate and develop team spirit. Human relations skills are required by all managers at all levels of management. This is so, since all managers have to interact and work with people.

3. Technical Skills
A technical skill is the ability to perform the given job. Technical skills help the managers to use different machines and tools. It also helps them to use various procedures and techniques. The low-level managers require moretechnical skills. This is because they are incharge of the actual operations. Apart from Prof. Katz's three managerial skills, a manager also needs (requires) following additional managerial skills.

4. Communication Skills
Communication skills are required equally at all three levels of management. A manager must be able to communicate the plans and policies to the workers. Similarly, he must listen and solve the problems of the workers. He must encourage a free-flow of communication in the organisation.

5. Administrative Skills
Administrative skills are required at the top-level management. The top-level managers should know how to make plans and policies. They should also know how to get the work done. They should be able to co-ordinate different activities of the organisation. They should also be able to control the full organisation.

6. Leadership Skills
Leadership skill is the ability to influence human behaviour. A manager requires leadership skills to motivate the workers. These skills help the Manager to get the work done through the workers.

7. Problem Solving Skills
Problem solving skills are also called as Design skills. A manager should know how to identify a problem. He should also possess an ability to find a best solution for solving any specific problem. This requires intelligence, experience and up-to-date knowledge of the latest developments.

8. Decision Making Skills
Decision-making skills are required at all levels of management. However, it is required more at the top-level of management. A manager must be able to take quick and correct decisions. He must also be able to implement his decision wisely. The success or failure of a manager depends upon the correctness of his decisions.



MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

Twenty first century is different from the last century in every way.

1. It is a century of look a like products and services. This has resulted on account of technological development worldwide. To top it all we have WTO in operation for last decade. Here we have to work at product/service differentiation and creating our competitive advantages. We need to do everything better and faster.

2. It is a century where CHANGE dominates our businesses. Change has always been there ever since Adam and Eve came down on this earth but what makes twenty first century unique is the speed and quantum of Change which has multiplied a hundred times. Twenty first century is not about managing Change, it is about staying ahead of Change. Today we have to learn to do things differently or do different things.

3. There will be five key words in the twenty first century for all businesses. These will be:

- QUALITY
- PRODUCTIVITY
- CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
- INNOVATION
- SPEED

All those who are winners in these areas will be the Success stories - others history or statistics.

Twenty first century will see two kinds of Managers. The Quick Manager and the Dead Manager - Tom Peters


Another Success Formula

I learned that the only way you are going to get anywhere in life is to work hard at it.
If you do, you'll win. If you don't you won't.

We need to have our blue print for success. It is our roadmap. We need to decide what we have to do, how much we have to do and what not to do. Time is a limited resource and we should trace where our time is going. Before going to bed, we can ask the following questions:

- Am I clear on what I want in my life?

- Do I have a strategy to reach what I want?

- Do I have a focus on my goal?

- Am I putting in adequate hours of work in a day?

- Is there anything else I can do to increase the quality of my work?

- Should I work even harder?

- Do I suffer from laziness and lack of enthusiasm?

- What sacrifice I have to make to make my dream come true? •


Different perspectives of Management

1. The Classical Management Perspective
2. The Behavioral Management Perspective
3. Contemporary Management Perspectives

The Classical Management Perspective
A set of management theories that focus on increasing the efficiency of the organization as a whole

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THEORIES
Focus on one best way to do it. Focuses on rational, scientific study of work situations to improve employee efficiency.

Frederick Taylor
The Father of Scientific Management

The Evolution of Management Theory
• The travel of a straight line is an absolute model of efficiency at its purest.
• The fastest way from point A to point B is a straight line.
• Scientifically, it is a proven fact.
• Mathematically, it is the shortest distance, therefore takes the less time.

• Four Principles of Scientific Management and increased efficiency

1. Study the ways jobs are performed now and determine new ways to do them.
• Gather detailed time and motion information.
• Try different methods to see which is best.
2. Codify the new methods into rules.
• Teach to all workers the new method.
3. Select workers whose skills match the rules.
4. Establish fair levels of performance and pay a premium for higher performance.



14 principles of Henry Fayol
• 1. Division of work: Division of work and specialization produces more and better work with the same effort.
2. Authority and responsibility: Authority is the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. A manager has official authority because of her position, as well as personal authority based on individual personality, intelligence, and experience. Authority creates responsibility.
3. Discipline: Obedience and respect within an organization are absolutely essential. Good discipline requires managers to apply sanctions whenever violations become apparent.
• 4. Unity of command: An employee should receive orders from only one superior.
5. Unity of direction: Organizational activities must have one central authority and one plan of action.
6. Subordination of individual interest to general interest: The interests of one employee or group of employees are subordinate to the interests and goals of the organization. This is necessary to maintain unity and to avoid friction among the employees
• 7. Remuneration of personnel: Salaries - the price of services rendered by employees - should be fair and provide satisfaction both to the employee and employer.
8. Centralization: The objective of centralization is the best utilization of personnel. The degree of centralization varies according to the dynamics of each organization.
9. Scalar chain: A chain of authority exists from the highest organizational authority to the lowest ranks.
• 10. Order: Organizational order for materials and personnel is essential. The right materials and the right employees are necessary for each organizational function and activity.
11. Equity: In organizations, equity is a combination of kindliness and justice. Both equity and equality of treatment should be considered when dealing with employees.
12. Stability of tenure of personnel: To attain the maximum productivity of personnel, a stable work force is needed.
• 13. Initiative: Thinking out a plan and ensuring its success is an extremely strong motivator. Zeal, energy, and initiative are desired at all levels of the organizational ladder.
14. Esprit de corps: Teamwork is fundamentally important to an organization. Work teams and extensive face-to-face verbal com

KEITH DAVIS MODEL OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
• Proposition 1: SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ARISES FROM SOCIAL POWER.
• Proposition 2: BUSINESS SHALL OPERATE AS A 2 WAY OPEN SYSTEM, WITH OPEN RECEIPT OF INPUTS FROM SOCIETY AND OPEN DISCLOSURE OF ITS OPERATIONS TO THE PUBLIC.
• Proposition 3: THE SOCIAL COSTS AND BENEFITS OF AN ACTIVITY, PRODUCT or SERVICE, SHALL BE THOROUGHLY CALCULATED AND CONSIDERED IN DECIDING WHETHER TO PROCEED WITH IT.
• Proposition 4: THE SOCIAL COSTS RELATED TO EACH ACTIVITY, PRODUCT OR SERVICE SHALL BE PASSED ON TO THE CUSTOMER
• Proposition 5: BUSINESS INSTITUTIONS, AS CITIZENS, HAVE THE RESPONSIBILITY TO BECOME INVOLVED IN CERTAIN SOCIAL PROBLEMS THAT ARE OUTSIDE THEIR NORMAL AREAS OF OPERATION



Ethical, Social and Moral responsibilities of Business

THREE LEVELS OF ETHICAL STANDARDS
1. Actions defined by Law that are permissible and which are not
2. Actions that are defined as permissible or otherwise under Organization's policy and procedures.
3. Actions on which individual takes moral stance under his own conscience which are not governed by formal rules.

WHY ETHICAL LAPSES OCCUR
- The "Bad Apple"
- The Bad "Barrel"
- Moral Blindness
- Competitive Pressures
-Opportunity Pressures



The Organizational Environment & Working

Organizational Environment

Organizational Environment: those forces outside its boundaries that can impact it.
Forces can change over time and are made up of Opportunities and Threats.

Opportunities: openings for managers to enhance revenues or open markets.
• • New technologies, new markets and ideas.

Threats: issues that can harm an organization.
• • economic recessions, oil shortages.

• Managers must seek opportunities and avoid threats.

Knowledge base for Managers

Managers need a relevant, fairly extensive knowledge base for their particular managerial job. This may be in several areas e.g.:

Knowledge of industry
Knowledge of product
Knowledge of market
• Knowledge of technology

•

THE TASK ENVIRONMENT

Five elements:
• Customers and clients
Individuals and organisations purchasing products/services
• Competitors
Other organisations offering (or with a high potential to offer) rival products/services
• Suppliers
Organisations and individuals supplying resources an organisation needs to conduct its operations
• Labour supply
Individuals potentially employable by an organisation
• Government agencies
Agencies providing services and monitoring compliance with laws and regulations at local, state or regional and national levels

KEEPING TABS ON COMPETITORS

• Commercial databases
• Specialty trade publications
• Local newspaper clippings
• Advertised vacancies
• Published market research
• Trade shows & product literature
• Personal contacts
•

Industry Life Cycle

• Reflects the changes that take place in an industry over time.
• Birth stage: firms seek to develop a winning technology.
• Intel in hardware, or Microsoft in software or Apple in products
• Growth stage: Product gains customer acceptance and grows rapidly.
• New firms enter industry, production improves, distributors emerge.
• Shakeout stage: at end of growth, there is a slowing customer demand.
• Competitor rivalry increases, prices fall.
• Least efficient firms fail and leave industry.
• Maturity stage: most customers have bought the product, growth is slow.
• Relationships between suppliers, distributors more stable.
• Usually, industry dominated by a few, large firms.
• Decline stage: falling demand for the product.
• Prices fall, weaker firms leave the industry.
•

• The General Environment

• Consists of the wide economic, technological, demographic and similar issues.

• Managers usually cannot impact or control these.
• Forces have profound impact on the firm.
• Economic forces: affect the national economy and the organization.

• Includes interest rate changes, unemployment rates, economic growth.
• When there is a strong economy, people have more money to spend on goods and services.
• Technological forces: skills & equipment used in design, production and distribution.

• Result in new opportunities or threats to managers.
• Often make products obsolete very quickly.
• Can change how we manage.
• Socialcultural forces: result from changes in the social or national culture of society.

• Social structure refers to the relationships between people and groups.
• Different societies have vastly different social structures.
• National culture includes the values that characterize a society.
• Values and norms differ widely throughout the world.
• These forces differ between cultures and over time.



Michael Porter's famous Five Forces of Competitive Position model provides a simple perspective for assessing and analyzing the competitive strength and position of a corporation or business organization.

porter's five forces 1. Existing competitive rivalry between suppliers
2. Threat of new market entrants
3. Bargaining power of buyers
4. Power of suppliers
5. Threat of substitute products (including technology change)



DECISION MAKING

Decision: The choice made from available alternatives that is expected to lead to favorable solution to problem

Decision Making: The process of recognizing a problem, generating and weighing alternatives, coming to a decision, taking action and assessing the results.

ELEMENTS OF THE DECISION SITUATION

- The Decision Makers
- Goals to be served
- Relevant Alternatives
- Order of the Alternatives
- Choice of alternative

Types of Problems:
- Crisis problem
- Non crisis problem
- Opportunity problem

Types of Decisions:
- Programmed Decisions
- Non programmed decisions

Conditions of Decision Making:
- Certainty
- Risk
- Uncertainty
- Ambiguity

Group Decision Making
Advantages and Disadvantages

Processes of making group decisions
• Brainstorming
• Nominal Group technique
• Delphi Group technique
Rational Decision Making Process


Step 1: Identify the problem
- Recognize the problem
- Defining the problem
- Diagnosis of problem

Step 2: Generate alternatives

Step 3: Evaluate Alternatives

Step 4: Make the Decision

Step 5: Implement the Decision

Step 6: Evaluate the results and provide feedback

Barriers to decision making: - Imperfect or incomplete information
- In accurate identification of problem or alternatives
- Biases


First Hourly – February 22, 2015

- READ THE FIRST FIVE CHAPTERS OF THE BOOK "MANAGEMENT" by KATHRYN BARTOL, MARGARET TEIN, GRAHAM MATTHEWS & DAVID MARTIN AS IF YOUR ENTIRE HOURLY RESULT DEPENDED ON THESE
- MATERIAL ON WEBSITES SUPPLEMENT TO WHAT IS WRITTEN IN THE BOOK OR WHAT HAS BEEN TAUGHT IN THE CLASS.


My Life principles

  • - To succeed you need to be Daring, Different and the First
  • - Winnig is not Everything; it is the Only thing!
  • - The best way to predict your Future is to Invent it!
  • - Never be doomed to Mediocrity

My Favorite Web Sites

World's # 1 Customer Service Guru
Serving the less fortunate
Education for the future
Building proactive mindsets

Email: cms2002@cyber.net.pk